Sunday, October 30, 2016

MODULE 3 - DEVELOPMENT OF LANGUAGE SKILLS (104.11)


MODULE 3 - DEVELOPMENT OF LANGUAGE SKILLS (15 HRS) 

3.1      Listening skill -sub-skills, developmental activities, types of listening (casual, focused, intensive, extensive)

3.2      Speaking skill- sub-skills, developmental activities

3.3     Reading skill– sub-skills, developmental activities, mechanics of reading, reading

problems & their solutions, types of reading (intensive, extensive, loud, silent,

individual, choral, literal, interpretive, critical, creative) 

3.4     Writing skill– sub-skills, developmental activities, characteristics of good

handwriting, types of punctuation marks, and types of composition (free & guided) 

3.5      Integration of language skills through Task-based instruction.

3.6      Evaluating the four-fold skills (Analytical & Global impression scheme).   

LANGUAGE SKILLS

CONTENTS
 
1.       LISTENING- SUBSKLLS-ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELPING SUBSKILLS –TYPES OF LISTENING SKILL(EXTENSIVE, INTENSIVE,FOCUSED, SELECTIVE AND CASUAL)

2.       SPEAKING- SUBSKLLS-ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPING SUBSKILLS-EVALUATING SPEAKING SKILL-SCORING PROCDURES(ANALYTIC AND GLOBAL IMPRESSION MARKING SCHEME)

3.       READING-SUBSKILLS-MECHANICS OF READING, READING PROBLEMS -KINDS OF READING(CHORAL AND INDIVIDUAL , LOUD AND SILENT, EXTENSIVE AND INTENSIVE, LITERAL, INTERPRETIVE, CREATIVE AND CRITICAL)-

TEACHING ELEMENTARY READING (ANALYTIC AND SYNTHETIC METHODS).

4.        WRITING-SUBSKILLS, MECHANICS OF WRITING, CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD HANDWRITING, PUNCTUATION. –COMPOSITION-TYPES (FREE AND GUIDED)-CORRECTION RULES.

FOUR-FOLD LANGUAGE SKILLS AND TEACHING OF ENGLISH

Teaching the communication skills(LSRW) in English and their relative importance

Listening-Various types of listening ,their degrees of complexity ,and strategies to enhance its effectiveness.

Speaking –Pronunciation ,fluency, grammar, comprehensibility , organization  and expression of ideas, and rhetorical effects-specific techniques    to improve spokenEnglish.

Reading- Word recognition, visual descrimination, comprehension-different types of reading and new strategies for  teaching reading.

Writing-Hand writing skills, & mechanics of writing different forms of writing(narrative, descriptive, expository, and creative. )   -modern strategies to enhance effective written expression.

Aims and specific techniques of teaching structure, vocabulary, prose, poetry, composition, precis writing and translation.

INTRODUCTION 

l  LANGUAGE SKILLS

Learning a language is not learning about  the language .The first means learning to use it, The second means learning the system of it .’Knowledge about   Language’ will be helpful to refine the ‘use of language’ for communication.

  English language teacher to get the student acquire the four fold major language skills

    •    Listening skill
    •     Speaking skill
    •     Reading skill
    •     Writing skill

LISTENING SKILL

A) WHAT IS LISTENING SKILL?         

a)Hearing Process

Hearing must  proceed listening. The human ear has three parts-1)the outer ear, 2)the middle ear, and 3) The inner ear.

b) Listening Process

Listening is hearing and perceiving a message. Hearing  is a physiological process while listening is a mental process. Listening is a receptive skill but it is an active process.

The listening process has three stages-1) hearing, 2)processing and 3)evaluating.

c) Objective of Listening skill.

The specifications:-

The listener develops  the ability to:-

1. receive information –general and specific

2.Distinguish between sounds

3. formulate  attitudes and opinions

4. arrange events in sequences

5. know  the interests  of the speaker.

6.be familiar with  functional categories

7. organize ideas.

d) Barriers affecting listening and comprehension

1)Linguistic barriers-difference in the linguistic levels of the speaker and listener.

2)Use of hard words  /Registers of a particular branch of study.

3) Noisy Environment- listener  will be distracted.

4)Psychological –Lack of interest from the part of the listener.

5) Negative attitude-causes unwillingness to listen.

6)Physiological-Partial or total hearing impairment.

7)Environmental- Impatience, interruption , preoccupation etc.

A good listener should overcome these barriers.

To make listening effective:-

1)practice note taking/note making.

2Keep alert and attentive.

3) read the handouts in advance , before the speech.

4)select  conducive seats.

5)Take a positive and purposive attitude.

6)Focus attention on content.

7)identify main and supportive ideas.

e) Sub skills

Listening skill  can be broadly divided in to two classes:-

a)Listening for sound perception-

The Sub skills are:

1) Distinguish the sound between  L1 and L2. (phonemes)

2)Understanding the supra segmental features ( tone , stress, intonation etc)

3)pronunciation

4)The phonetic nature of English (discord between the pronunciation and spelling)

b)) Listening for  meaning(comprehension)

The Sub skills are:

1)      Prediction of the theme and word guess

2)      Collocation of words

3)      Grasping the mood and import of the speaker.

4)      The logical development  and sequence of the idea. Stylistics

5)      Inferring the interest of  the speaker.

6)      Grasping the implications and  suggestions –connotation

B) DEVELOPING LISTENING SKILLS

f) Listening Activities for developing the Sub skills

-Enough exposure to grasp the sound system of L2.

-Introduction of sound system before the graphics.

-teacher be the role model in pronunciation.

-use of minimal pairs 

-sound practices in initial stages

-speech in meaningful phrases , at normal speed and volume

-instructions  for  activities

-use of facial expression and gestures

-use of AV aids and grids.

-motivate the learner for listening- being the basic skill .

g) Phases of Listening Activities

1)pre-listening.

2)on listening

3) post listening

h) Types of Listening skills

-Broadly classified in to :-

1) Extensive and Intensive listening

2) listening for perception and listening for comprehension

3)Focused , selective and casual listening

More subtly classified as:-

4)discriminative listening –develops logical thinking.

5)critical listening- critically evaluates the validity / utility of a message.

6)Comprehensive listening –clear understanding and provision for follow up action

7)Therapeutic  listening –superficial grasp of message

8)Appreciative listening.- leads to appreciation

i)  Kinds of Listening Materials

-Authentic, recorded and live.

-BBC world services, Voice of America and similar broad-casts., edusat.

-pop songs in English,

-materials prepared by RIE, CIEFL etc.

-conversations related to real life situations-natural and spontaneous

j) Developing Listening Materials

-Teacher’s speech  should the best material- Be a role model.

-Facilities for listening to radio broadcasts, telecasts, attending language labs,

-use of  Lingua phone, gramophone and tape recorder.

-video production

-Tasks like Story Comprehension, Cloze passage (outline story completion), use of AV aids and dictation.

C) EVALUATING LISTENING SKILL

k) Evaluating Listening skill

Some of the strategies to assess listening skill are:-

1)Phoneme recognition test

2)Responding to stress and Intonation

3)Dictation

4)Simulation

5)Extended Communication

6)Polite forms

                                                                                    

 

SPEAKING SKILL

A) WHAT IS SPEAKING SKILL?

a)The process of  Speaking

Speaking is the transmission of ideas. A number of sub skills such as articulation, enunciation , pronunciation and voice modulation have to be attained and integrated.

b)Objectives of Speaking skill

The important speaking skills to be attained are:-

The learner:-

  1. is capable of producing English phonemes in isolation and in combination as well.
  2. Capable of speaking with apt supra segmental features.
  3. Speaks with apt words, and structures spontaneously.
  4. Regulates speech according to the context.

c)Sub-skills

1) ) Sound- phonological level

2) Supra segmental features- morphological level

3)Vocabulary - lexical level

4)Usage –syntactic level

5) Discourse –semantic level.

B)DEVELOPING SPEAKING SKILL

Three major areas

  1. Mechanics of speaking- (pronunciation) .
  2. Usage, vocabulary and language functions
  3. Cultural and social contexts

d)Teaching Pronunciation

-Correct pronunciation is the  mark of refined language and culture.

Objectives of teaching Pronunciation

1.concept of standard  pronunciation

2.production of correct speech sounds

3.develops accuracy and fluency

4. interest in linguistics

5.Concept of supra segmental features

6. good speech manners

7.Awareness about production of speech sounds, vocal organs, manner and place of articulation,

8.comparive study of L1 and L2 speech sounds

9. impressive non-verbal language.

10. speaks discourses effectively according to the contexts.

Causes for difficulties in pronunciation

-not conversant with the standard pronunciation.

-mother tongue interference

-auditory problems.

-lack of awareness about supra segmental features.

-lack of exposure

-lack of opportunities to  speak.

-no examination in phonetics

-phonetic nature of English language.

-written passages without marking  supra segmental features.

Methods to promote correct pronunciation

1.Perception and Initiation –The perceives and repeats the words written and spoken , until he can pronounce it properly.

2.Phonetic method- scientific and realistic and basic manner. –learns the fundamentals of phonetics

The 44 basic sounds made from the 26 letters of the alphabet.

-Singing songs, reciting poems, and loud reading employed

Geoffery  Broughton et. al,(Teaching English as a Foreign Language suggests few steps.

Suggestions for improving pronunciation :-

1.pursue right pronunciation .

2. use of AV aids-(diagram of speech organs, IPA charts, tape recorder, language lab, radio etc.)

3.Recognition and production practice

4.interest in phonetics

5.Opportunities for oral tasks

7.psychological methods

8. variety of methods

9.For Upper primary classes-awareness of the Phonetic principles and symbols of IPA, illustration of the vocal organs.

At high school level- A clear picture of the vocal organs, -active and passive , manner and place of articulation, voiced and voiceless , vowels and consonants  etc.

e)Phases of Speaking activities

1)Phase 1-unskilled speaker needs encouragement

2) Phase 2-initiate conversation in a small group, use adequate vocabulary for informal communication

3) Phase 3-self assured and get involved in peer discussion, enriched vocabulary and confidence in facing audience

4) Phase 4-independent autonomous speaker. Expected at high school level.

-Teaching English –Thompson and Wyatt  gives a  detailed description.

f) Characteristics of an Oral skill lesson

“Speech is the ground work, all the rest are built from it”.(F.G.French)

-Exposure to a variety of styles and strategies.

g)Objectives of an oral lesson

1.become an efficient speaker.

2.skillful in organization and delivery of ideas.

3.Develops communicative skills

4.partipation in a variety of contexts

5. insights in to theories of communication and the nature of English language.

h) suggestions to make an oral lesson successful.

1.selection and gradation of items

2.chance to converse with close friends first

3. encouragement to speak

4. vocabulary extension

5.qualified and linguistically minded teacher

6.curriculum with scope for opral work

7.group works

8 individual attention

9.attentive listening and right speaking habits.

i)Speaking Activities for developing the Sub skills

1)Role-play

2)Simulation

3)Description /narration

4) Group Discussion

5)Pair work

6)Information gap filling tasks

7)Asking questions

8)running commentaries

9) Imagining

10) News reading

11) problem solving

The resourcefulness of the teacher is the main factor.

 

Speaking skill

  

                 Speaking may be defined as the transmission     of communications. Speaking skill is a large domain   which cannot be attained as the whole lot and by   leaps and bounds in a class or in a  few years. a   number of sub skills  such as articulations, enunciation, pronunciation, and voice modulation have to be attained and integrated to constitute the whole.

The organs of speech         

        Speech sounds we need an air stream mechanism and that most sound of most languages in the world are produced with a pulmonic egressive air stream mechanism. The air that we breath out comes out of the lungs. Before it get out into the outer atmosphere various organs in our body convert it into speech sounds. These organs are called the organs of speech

Organs of speech (schematic diagram)


The organs of speech can be divided into following three groups:

The respiratory system.

The phonatory  system.

The articulatory  system.

                                                        THE ORGANS OF SPEECH

The Lungs
T
he lungs act as the bellows . The air released by the lungs undergoes modifications at various stages before it passes into the outer atmosphere and then different sounds are produced.
The Larynx and the vocal cords
The larynx is a bony box, situated at the top of the windpipe or trachea. It contains a valve-like membraneous tissue called vocal cords. The vocal cords are like a pair of lips placed horizontally from front to back. They are jointed at the front, but separated at the back and the opening between them is called the glottis. If the vocal cords vibrate during the production of a sound, it is called a voiced sound. If the vocal cords do not vibrate, the sound is called a voiceless sound.
The pharynx
The pharynx is the tube that goes from the back of the mouth to the place where the tube divides for food and air. In the pharynx, the air can undergo modifications owing to the operation of the soft palate or velum.
The soft palate
It is the soft part of the back of the top of the mouth. It is movable and its position can determine the nature of sounds. It acts like a valve opening or closing the oral passage of the air. If the soft palate is lowered, the passage into the nose is called nasal sound. When the palate is raised and the air passes only through the mouth, the sound is called an oral sound.
The mouth
The mouth is the most important organ involved in the production of speech. The organs in the mouth involved in the production of speech are brodly divided into articulars and passive articulars. The active articulars are the lower lip and tongue. The passive articulars are the uppel lips, the upper teeth,the roof of the mouth and the back wall of the throat.
The lips
Lips constitute the final outlet of the mouth cavity. The shape lips acquire affects the sound. They may be shut or held apart in various ways. When they are held tightly shut, they form a complete obstruction, preventing the air from escaping for a moment.
The tongue
The tongue is the most flexible organ in the mouth. It is capable of assuming a great variety of position in the articulation of sounds. The tongue, for convenience of description, as the tip , the blade, the front and the back. These part of the tongue into contact it the passive articulars and various sounds are formed. It is the position of the tongue which is largely responsible for the differences in the sounds of various vowels.
The roof of the mouth
Among the passive articulars the roof of the mouth plays an important role in the sound variations. The roof of the mouth is divided into three parts- the teeth ridge, the hard palate and the soft palate.
 


Classification of phonetic scripts in English

Phonetics script are classified into three:

Consonants

Vowels

Diphthongs

Consonants

             A consonants is usually described taking into an account whether it is voiceless or voiced its place of articulation and its manner of articulation. Manner of articulation refers to the stricture involved and plosive, affricate, nasal, fricative, etc. are labels given to consonants according to their manner of articulation. Place of articulation just means the two articulation involved in the production of a consonants .

Consonants can be described according to their place of articulation. The label used is normally an adjective derived from the name of the passive articulation.

Vowels             
Vowels are divided into two

    rounded vowels: are those during the articulation of which the lips are rounded.

   e.g. cot, caught, fool, put

Unrounded vowels: are those sduring the articulation of which the lips are spread.

    e.g. seat, sat,sit,water.

 Diphthongs

      The vowels at the end dose not sound the same as the beginning such vowels of changing quality are called diphthongs. 

    e.g. poor, boy, cow, buy                           

Vowels that do not change their quality are called monophthogs or pure vowels

 e.g. see, sit, bet, bad, saw, boot

Consonants scripts

Vowels script

Diphthongs script

Sub skills of speech

sub skills are :

*      Sound

*      Stress

*      Intonation

*      Vocabulary

*      Grammer/useage

Sound

The students have to acquire knowledge of English sound system. The student should be given awareness of the speech in English consisting of 12 vowels, 8 diphthongs, 24 consonants. Students should be made aware that there is no concord between spilling and pronunciation of words in English

Stress

Stress are very important more than in other language and that a change in stress will produce a change in the meaning in the same text  with pleasant results. Word stress means an extra breath force exerted on a syllable in a word in a more than one syllable and sentence stress on a particular word in a sentence to given the emphasis.

Intonation

English is our second language we have to learn the principles of intonation and used it as we can. Intonation is mainly of these four types rising, falling, rising-falling, and, falling-rising. In general for exclamation, request and questions rising tone is appropriate for statement and command falling tone.  

Vocabulary                                                                                                                  

 Vocabulary and uses appropriate words in contexts. vocabulary is two types active & passive. Words from the stock of active vocabulary readily come to our use. but word of passive vocabulary are not so.

Grammar/Usage

According to difference in approach there are different types of grammars. A broad classifications:

Teaching pronunciation

The objective of teaching production are:

  1. To enable the learners to cultivate an attitude for intelligible, audible, and clear pronunciations.
  2. To enable them to know the strength, importance and beauty of English.
  3.  To develop in them good speech manners.
  4. To develop interest in them to pursue the study of the language.
  5. To develop in them the ability to speak long sentence for a long time correctly.

Characteristics of an oral skill lesson

  1. OBJECTIVE OF ORAL LESSON

Oral lesson is:

  1. To help the student to become an efficient speaker.
  2. To develop their confidence
  3. To enable them to function in both the roles of speakers and listeners.
  4. To enable them to participate in a variety of contexts where conversation is imperative.
  5. To enable them to imbibe theories of communication and the nature of English language.

2. Characteristics of an oral skill lesson

  1. If the students are new to the language simple items should be selected.
  2. In the next stage learners may be left to converse with their close friends.
  3. There should be opportunities for asking questions.
  4. A voluntary speaker should be encouraged to speak.
  5. Vocabulary extension should be crierion.

3. Suggestions to make an oral lesson successful

  1. The teacher should necessarily be sincere, qualified and linguistically minded and he should plan before hand for the oral lesson .
  2. Individual attention should be given to the students.
  3. The class can be divided into groups so that verabl interaction among the individuals will be in comfortable context.

Speaking activity

Speaking activity are :

  1. Role play
  2. Simulation
  3. Description/narration
  4. Group discussion
  5. Information gap filling
  6. Asking questions
  7. Running
  8. Imagining

Conclusion

                  

                 As a  successful English teacher the four language skills should be developed with emphasis on speaking skill which is the largest domain speaking skill is a two way activity where the person always changes his role of speaker to listener.

C)EVALUATING SPEAKING SKILL

j)How to evaluate speaking skill?

Speaking is hardly evaluated due to :-

1.large classes

2.lack of facilities

3.time consuming

4.faulty exam system

5.little scope for interview and viva-voce

k) Evaluating speaking skill – scoring  procedures (analytic and global impression marking scheme).

                                     Assessing performance-Continuous comprehensive evaluation, with the tools like  oral tests, viva voce, seminars, debates, oral remarks, oral readings, recitations, roleplay, dramatization, speech,  stage performances etc. can be used to evaluate the speaking skill. Evaluation of every sub skills   of  speaking skill  with a provision for feedback  will be effective.

1) Analytic scoring

A method of marking which can be used in tests of productive language use, such as speaking and writing. The marker makes an assessment with the aid of a list of specific points. For example, in a test of writing the analytic scale may include a focus on grammar, vocabulary, use of linking devices, etc. Contrast global scoring.


2)Global impression marking scheme.

Global scoring  is a method of scoring which can be used in tests of writing and speaking. The rater gives a single score according to the general impression made by the language produced, rather than by breaking it down into a number of scores for various aspects of language use. Also called holistic scoring. Contrast analytic scoring.

                                      The research shows that the analytic scoring approach is  more effective for improving EFL learners’ speaking performance. The study also found the students’ positive attitude towards the adoption of analytic scoring approach in teaching and assessing speaking skill.


READING SKILL

A) WHAT IS READING SKILL?

a)Reading  Process

reading is the reception of meaning from the written language. It is the ability to interpret linguistic sounds in their graphic and symbolic representation.

An active receptive skill.  Constitutes -Interpreting, Evaluating and constructing meaning.

Comprehension takes place in three levels –

Literal meaning, interpretation   of meaning and evaluation of meaning.

Edgar Dale –reading on the lines, reading between the lines, reading beyond the lines respectively.

Reading for- knowledge, pleasure and culture.

b) Sub-skills

Factors influencing reading readiness

1. Physical or physiological.

2.social or environmental.

3.emotional or motivational  

4.mental or intellectual.

c) Mechanics of Reading skill.

-Eye movements in jerks – training to enlarge eye span.

a)      Reading Problems and Defects

A)Faulty Reading Habits

1. finger pointing  reduces speed of reading.

2. Spreading the spit

3.Regression –eye moving backward

4.Vocalization –tendency to read word by word and not in sense groups

5. Sub vocalization- whispering on the passage in silent reading.

6. absent mindedness.

B) Defective Reading

Happens from two sources

1.Opthalmic (defective eye sight)

2. Neurological –stammering, alexia

e)Types of Reading 

1.loud reading

2.Silent reading

3.Intensive reading

4.Extensive reading

5.Skimming

6.Scanning

B) DEVELOPING READING SKILLS

f) Phases of Reading  Activities

1.Understanding sound system

2.Understanding the relationship between sentence and clause

3.recognizing the effects of style.

4. recognizing organization of a text

5.Making inferences

6.Extensive reading

7.Skimming for gist.

8.Scanning for specific information

9.Reading for details.

g) Techniques and Mechanical devices for improving speed and comprehension

h)Teaching Elementary Reading

Various methods of teaching reading

  1. Analytical method

a)Alphabetic method -pays attention to individual letter in  alphabetic method. Traditional , systematic and easy. Speed will not be developed.

b)Phonic method -pays attention to individual  sounds in  phonic method. Words is read in its constituent phonemes.-familiar with sounds in early stages itself - difficult in the beginning. Linguists prefer this method.

  1. Synthetic method

The three different perspectives

b)     The word method / look and say method

Word is introduced and meaning bond is created. –interesting. –speedy progress and psychological. Not easy to teach all words.

c)       The phrasal method/sentence method

Reading by meaningful phrases. Sentence is the unit of reading.-meaningful learning. Problematic for beginners. Practical only in advanced stages. Suitable for teaching in the situational approach.

d)     Paragraph method/story method

Paragraph is the unit for reading. –interesting. –lack of books. Simple stories on BB or charts used.

A combination of the methods according to the level and purpose should be employed.

 

i)Teaching Advanced Reading Skills

1.phonics

2.structural clues

3.morphological information

 4.inference from context.

j) Types of reading materials to develop reading skills

1.linguistic

2. background

3.Subject matter

4.Variety

k) Setting up a class library

-keep a class library consists of variety of interesting  resources.

-be enthusiastic and stimulate the learners.

-give a gist and interesting features of the publications.

-manuscript magazine

-A glossary of unfamiliar words to be attached with the books.

- materials

C) EVALUATING READING SKILL

l) Evaluating reading skill

 

WRITING SKILL                                                                                                                      

                       

A) WHAT IS  WRITING SKILL?         

a)Writing  Process

 

Writing skill in writing begins with simply copying and ranges to free self expression.

 Writing is not restricted to writing on paper only as in the past. Its scope has widened due to the advent of modern information and communication technology.

b)Different  forms of writing

            Writing has two main aspects, the mechanics of writing and the purpose and organization of writing.

c)Sub skills of writing

(i)                 Mechanics of handwriting, spelling and punctuation.

(ii)               Word choice i.e. vocabulary, idiom, phrase, tone etc.

(iii)             Organization i.e. ideas, paragraphs, topics cohesion and unity.

(iv)             Syntax i.e. structure and boundaries of sentence, choice of stylistics etc.

(v)               Grammar i.e. verb agreement, articles, pronouns etc.

(vi)             Content i.e. relevance, clarity, originality, logic, sequence etc.

(vii)           Purpose i.e. the relevance and justification for writing.

 

B) DEVELOPING WRITING  SKILLS

 

d) One technique each to develop each sub-skills

(i)                 Spelling                       : Correlate spelling and reading when news words are introduced. -Spelling book of confusing words, use mnemonics etc.

(ii)               Handwriting                : copy writing from other books, blackboard etc. Competition on handwriting ,

(iii)             Punctuation                 : They act as sign posts for easy, clear understanding of written material.

(iv)             Brainstorming with words, phrases, notes, connected ideas etc.

(v)               Vocabulary                  : Selecting vocabulary to convey attitude and implied meaning.

(vi)             Language use              : Ability to write correct and appropriate sentences.

(vii)           Treatment of content  : Ability to think creatively and develop thoughts, excluding all irrelevant information.

(viii)         Stylistic skills              : Ability to manipulate sentences and paragraphs and use language effectively.

(ix)             Judgment skills           : Ability to write in an appropriate manner for a particular purpose with a particular audience in mind.

e) Mechanics of writing

            While teaching a language, we develop number of skills in our students. Writing is one those communication skills.  Moreover, writing makes the record permanent.

            In teaching the mechanics of writing of English alphabet, the teacher has the advantage that his students have learnt it in the process of acquiring their mother tongue, though in a different way. The students now know how to hold the writing materials, at what suitable distance and how the physical posture should be etc.

            A few decades ago 4 types of English alphabet were taught to students: the civil round hand and cursive writing, the block capital letters and small letters (for print). But now, for handwriting, only block capital letters and cursive letters (Italic) are being taught and practiced, because that is enough.

            Italic writing is accepted and instructed in our schools for children’s hand writing with block capitals wherever necessary. One important thing is in writing the letters should be either vertical or slanting towards the right a little, not slanting to the left. The body of the letters should have uniform size.

            The few other features to be made part of our habit of writing are: letters in words should be distinctive, proper spacing should be given between words (one space), between the ending of a sentence and the beginning of the next (two spaces). Committing mistakes in spelling will be constructed badly by the readers. Italic writing as described above can be made perfect by practice for a few days and speed can be increased.

            If practiced, we can make our handwriting very legible, beautiful and attractive.

f) Handwriting Skills

            Good handwriting is an asset with the learner. good handwriting means legible writing which does not strain the mind of the reader. The reader can read it easily, nicely and fluently.     The teacher must have attractive handwriting. Simultaneously, the speed of writing should be maintained.

g) Characteristics of Good Handwriting

 Legible and clean writing will promote fluent, rapid reading. If the answer papers are written in good handwriting, the examiner will be motivated to go through it. Following are the characteristics of good handwriting.

(a)    Distinctiveness:           Every letter of a word is distinct. It is clearly visible. It can be recognized easily by the learner.

(b)   Proper spacing: There is proper space between the different words of a sentence. It should be maintained throughout the writing.

(c)    Size of the letter: The size of the letters is according to the age group of the learner. The same proportion is kept in the whole writing.

(d)   Simplicity: The different letters of a word are written in a simple way.

(e)    Straight lines: Good handwriting runs in straight lines/.

(f)    Principle of four lined note book: That gives uniformity to the writing.

(g)   Position of letters: The letters may be in erect position and also be in a forward slant positions.

(h)   Good punctuation Marks: The punctuation should be correct

h)Techniques to develop good handwriting

            Research studies proved that handwriting can be improved in many ways.

1.      Teacher must give continuous guidance during the early stages of writing and his own writing must be a model.

2.      Regular writing exercises should be given in lower classes copy writing / transcription.

3.      Italic writing should be practiced.

4.      Frequent competitions in handwriting will proved encouragement.

5.      Posture, holding of the writing material e.g. the black board are important factors to be considered.

6.      At early stages, the students should be encouraged to make use of four –line note books.

7.      Good handwriting should be displayed in the classroom to motivate  the students.

i)Paper format

·         Full size paper

·         Margin

·         Skip a line between title and first line.

·         Distinct letters

·         No decorative loops.

·         Correct punctuation marks.

·         Breaking words only between syllabus

·         Attractive

·         Neat, easy to read

j)Capital letters and Punctuation Marks

            Use capital letters whenever is necessary.

            Use Numbers, Abbreviations, Punctuations, Apostrophe, Quotation Marks, Comma, Colon, Semi –Colon, Dash, Hyphen and parenthesis to set off extra or incidental information from the rest of a sentence.

            Thus writing is a complex act which has to be analyzed. One part of it is dependent on motor mechanisms, and the other represents real work of the intellect.

k) Phases of  writing   Activities

1. Tracing the letters and copying continue for two three years. Improving handwriting will be advisable.

2.In the High school stage fairly adequate skill in writing well organized paragraphs and letters with cohesion, sequence and in a logical way using proper connectors. Spelling games and word building games can be provided.

l)Creative writing (Composition )

All types of writing gradually leads one to creative types of writing. Guided composition enables a person to write tree composition and that paves way to creative writing. A person is enabled to write reviews, short stories, dialogues etc. and the same may be used in the college magazine or may be published somewhere in the standard magazine.

Developing a composition should involve the following steps:1. Pre composition, 2.Oral composition, 3.Writing composition , and 4. Correction work.

By the time pupils  begin to write confidently they should be encouraged to write imaginatively according to their choices.

m)Objectives of Creative writing

                        The following may be regarded as the major purposes of Creative writing.

a.       Instil confidence  

b.      Give pleasure                   

c.       Sense of achievement      

d.      Relieve psychic pressure

e.       Writing for the public eye : 

f.       Good use of leisure time  

C) EVALUATING WRITING  SKILL

n) Evaluating writing  skill

Evaluated mainly at terminal or annual exams.

Evaluating writing skill is to be seen in two areas

  1. The mechanics of writing

While evaluating the mechanics of writing , we   need to see that  the pupils should write with 1.legibility, 2.Simplicity, 3.Uniformity in size, 4.Distinctiveness, 5.Spacing, 6.Spelling, 7.Punctuation, and 8.Speed.

All these features can be evaluated through different strategies like copy writing and dictation

  1. The organization and presentation of ideas.

To test cognitive skills , test like rearrange in to a logical sequence, outline expansion, supplying the omitted connectives and the similar teacher made creative devices can be used.

o)Correction Rules and correction signals

1. Correction Rules

-class correction and self correction to be encouraged.

-individual correction as far as possible.

-common mistakes  correction orally and using the B.B.

2.correction signals

-In professional journalism sixty signals are used for proof reading. In class room correction , a minimum number is required.

Teacher should make children familiar with the signals  she is going to use, in advance.

FOLLOW UP ACTIVITY

Illustrate how discourse based syllabus caters to the development of

language skills.

***

Unit test

 UNIT- 6 : LANGUAGE SKILLS

 

}  Total  Weightage : 10

}  Time : 45 minutes

Match the following(wt.1)

}  A

}  1.Skimming

}  2.Scaning

}  3. Intensive Reading

}  4. Extensive Reading

}  B

}  Reading for specific information

}  Reading for gist

}  Rapid Reading

}  Reading for details

      Answer the following

Write a short note on:(wt.2each )

}  5. Distinguish between ‘literal reading’ and ‘interpretive reading’.

}  6. Suggest activities that can be employed for enhancing the skill of Focused Listening.

}  7. Describe various activities to develop advanced Reading Skills in English.

***

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