Sunday, October 30, 2016



5.1.    Importance of developing study skills

5.2      Locating & gathering information (skimming & scanning) 

5.3.     Storing Information (note-taking, note-making, summarizing)

5.4      Developing reference skills (using the Dictionary & Thesaurus) 

5.5.    Retrieving information using technology &computers . 


·         Study  :-‘Study ‘ means the  ‘learning’ and “learning to learn’.

·         The five steps involved in any type of study are :SQ4R

1.      Survey of materials with Questions in mind.

2.      Reading to locate relevant area.

3.      Review to go over again in mind

4.      Recite(retain)

5.      Retrieval.

·         The process of meaningful study undergoes four processes:



3.Retention(sorting and store in long term memory)

4.Retrieval (access and use when needed)


·         The essential sub skills  of study skills are:

·         1. Locating Skills

·         2.Gathering Skills

·         3.Storing Skills

·         4. Retrieval Skills


n  Skills to gather information quickly.

n  Skills to locate the authentic sources and comprehend it.

n   knowledge of what to refer and where to get the sources of information

n  Skills  to make use of a library catalogue.

n  Skills to get information from computer or internet.

n  Skills to Glance through the index or content for relevant information.

Using Dictionary

Ø  The word  “DICTIONARY” comes from Latin word “DICTIONARICM” meaning –a book that lists and explains the word of language.

Ø  First English Dictionary was written by: ROBERT COWDREY (1960).

How to refer to a Dictionary?

Ø  Go to the instruction given

   e.g. “N” for noun “V” for verb .

Ø  Should not the indication for the speech forms.

Ø  First word in the left page is given at the left top corner of left page make reference easier.

Uses of Dictionary

Ø  Locate alphabetical positions.

Ø  Learn meaning.

Ø  Learn spelling.

Ø  Learn pronunciation.

Ø  Learn syllabification.

Ø  Learn hyphenation.

Ø  Learn abbreviation.

Ø  Learn capitalization.


Ø  Thesaurus- house (in Greek)

Ø  Similar to the Dictionary of the words.

Ø  Thesaurus is a book containing words of information about a particular field or a set of concepts.

Ø  When we need a thesaurus ?

         Any who has ever been at a loss for the right word and has to struggle to find the word that seems to fit exactly.

Ø  Help the user to avoid repeating the same word monotonously.

Ø  Using library

Ø  Given an index get the information from books.

Ø  Locate the sources needed.

Ø  Identify the books and resources/e-resources for data needed to solve a problem . The University Library contains hundreds of thousands of books and learned journals and provides access to a huge range of online journals and other academic resources.

Ø  The Library has an excellent website  and printed guides which will help you make the most of the information and resources available.


}  how to locate, select and utilize a range of oral/ written sources for the r studies.

}  learn how to  select reliable  resources

}  a variety of methods for note-taking/note making.

}   Useful notes are an important tool to help you with : focusing, learning ,gathering information for assignments ,revising

}  preventing plagiarism. use library, internet and other resources to locate the information you need for your studies

}  identify and employ appropriate reading strategies for different types of texts and different tasks

}  select important information for note-taking

}  develop your own system of note-taking and short-hand

}  take notes in a way that minimizes the risk of plagiarism in your own writing

}  read sources from a critical perspective.


}  utilize your time more efficiently and effectively

}  develop critical thinking through the use of sifting/sorting techniques

}  broaden your outlook and inform your subject understanding through the exploration of more diverse sources.

}  Information gathering can be used for a variety of different reasons; however, the main benefit with regards to your academic studies is that

}  you will  become aware of more diverse sources, opinions and

}  approaches which can only enhance your academic work.

What critical reading is?

}  Developing a critical attitude is both a necessity in order to succeed in an academic environment, and an invaluable skill in the work place.

}  Types of Reading 

}  1.loud reading

}  2.Silent reading

}  3.Intensive reading

}  4.Extensive reading

}  5.Skimming

}  6.Scanning


}      It means reading something without producing audible to others. In this type of reading the  learner of language reads everything quietly .Loud reading is necessary only when pronunciation is to be concerned.

}  INTENSIVE READING  :-It means detailed study of the passage.

}  EXTENSIVE READING   :- In Extensive Reading the learners are not getting help from the  teacher. They read independently for comprehension of the overall subject matter,.  It involves reading silently and speedily

}  SKIMMING :-Skimming of a lesson means gathering together salient factors contained in it.  Skimming of a prose paragraph means going through it and collecting the main points contained their in.

}  SCANNING:-Scanning of a book or a lesson or a paragraph means collecting detailed information contained in the  subject matter. In scanning everything good or bad is pointed out. It also develop the habit of working hard.


-Stored in memory , in oral forms,  in written, in graphic, in press, in electronic devices for future uses.

Storage: to move data into a repository from which it can be later

retrieved. Paper, magnetic media (e.g., diskettes, tape cartridges, hard

discs) and CDs are storage devices.

Sources of information  for storage   for  retrieval

}  Journals

}  Text books

}  Theses

}   Newspapers

}   CD ROM/ websites

}   Internet (on-line information)

}   Audio/video tapes

}  documents and film stripes

}   Slides/transparencies

}   notes and experiences

}  Teacher  made texts

}  departmental resources

}  The work of friends and other students


}  A good listener should overcome  barriers.

}  To make listening effective:-

}  1)practice note taking/note making.

}  2Keep alert and attentive.

}  3) read the handouts in advance , before the speech.

}  4)select  conducive seats.

}  5)Take a positive and purposive attitude.

}  6)Focus attention on content.

}  7)identify main and supportive ideas.

Note making

}  Helpful to  maintain a record of all

}  useful information whether you have used

}  it or not (it may of use in the future)

}  It will help you to acknowledge the source.

}  Notes are one of the forms of storing information in an easily retrievable way for future use.


}  Notes are taken down for many purposes like studying, writing articles, essays etc.

}   very useful in self lrng

}   Involves many abilities: 1.Ability to identify key ideas, 2. to identify main pts, identify topic sentence,  4. to identify supporting details


}  contain only main ideas and their supporting details.

}  only key words are included. sentences are avoided

}  articles, prepositions dropped unless very essential

}  abbreviations, symbols etc. used to make it short.

}  all ideas and supporting details are logically and systematically organized.


}  use short words for long words or terms. eg: hike for increase

}  use abbreviations and acronyms. eg: WHO, NATO

}  use numbers instead of 8 for eight

}  abbreviate using only the first few letters of the approx. for approximately

}  abbreviate dropping out all or most vowel dept. for department

}  use standard  .. for therefore.


Retrieval: to find and obtain data that is currently needed. There is no

direct device support for this function, which in fact acts on storage

devices, though some authors choose not to differentiate between

storage and retrieval devices


}   A summary is a brief restatement of the main ideas in a text in one's own words. It is usually a condensation of an extended idea or argument into a sentence or more.


}   They are shorter than the original text.

}  Summaries demonstrate one's understanding of the subject matter of the text.

}  focuses on presentation of the writer's main ideas only.

}  usually written in ones own words.


}  The conversion of verbal information into a visual /graphical is the process of trans-coding, popularly known as Information Transfer.

}  This is needed because visuals are far more appealing than the written word.

}  It stays longer in our minds.


}  Tree Diagrams

}  Flow Charts

}  Algorithms

}  Cyclic Charts

}  Tables

}  Graphs and charts.

}  Concept Maps

}  Semantic mapping

}  Learners should be familiar with the various organizational strategies  and conventions  of  discourses ,  academic writing.