Sunday, April 3, 2011

705 Unit Five Models of Teaching

CONCEPT ATTAINMENT MODEL -Comes under the Information Processing Family to enhance thinking skills of learners -Search for and listing of attributes that can be used to distinguish exemplars from non exemplars of various categories -It is an analysis of thinking by the student-developed by Bruner in 1966 COMPONENTS OF CONCEPT ATTAINMENT മോഡല്‍ - Name –term given to a particular category of objects -Exemplars-instances or examples of the concepts -Attributes-characteristics of a particular concept that helps distinguish instances (Ex) of concepts from non exemplars -Attribute value-acceptable range for any given relevant attributes -The rule- definition or statement specifying a concept ELEMENTS -SYNTAX -SOCIAL SYSTEM -PRINCIPLES OF REACTION -SUPPORT SYSTEM -INSTRUCTIONAL EFFECTS -NURTURANT EFFECTS SYNTAX- 3 PHASES Phase I -Presentation of data and Identification of concept (through exemplars and non-exemplars) -Teacher presents labelled examples -Students compare attributes in positive and negative examples -Students generate and test hypotheses -Students state a definition according to the essential attributes Phase II - Testing attainment of the concept (using the following strategies) -Students identify additional unlabelled examples as yes or no -Teachers confirm hypotheses, names concept, and restate definitions according to essential attributes -Students generate examples Phase III - Analysis of thinking strategies - Students describe thoughts -Students discuss role of hypotheses and attributes -Students discuss type and number of hypotheses Social system -Teacher chooses the concept ,selects and organize the materials into positive and negative examples and sequences the examples -Teacher has 3 functions -Record, prompt and present additional data -Moderate or highly structured Principles of Reaction -Teacher supports ,students designing the hypothesis formulation -Teacher helps students to test their hypotheses -Students discuss and evaluate their thinking strategies with proper assistance of the teacher Support System -Creative environment for attaining കോണ്‍സെപ്റ്റ്
- Flash cards, reference materials and black board may be used -Selection, observation and formulation of hypothesis of examples Effects Instructional Effects -Understanding nature of specific concepts -Improved concept building strategies -Practice in inductive reasoning Nurturant Effects -Sensitivity to logical reasoning in communication -Tolerance of ambiguity -Awareness of alternative perspectives Applications - can be used in a ll ages and grade levels -helps to understand the concept taught -Can be used as a tool of evaluation of important ideas introduced earlier -For opening a new conceptual area by initiating a sequence of individual or group inquiries -Can be used to develop communication skills(eg. To teach grammar ) -Can be used to teach the content of a discourse. ************************************ Lesson Transcript Name of the teacher Standard Name of the school Division Subject Duration Name of the concept- Clause Date

__________________________________ Content objectives To identify the structure -Clause as ' a group of words which forms a part of sentence and contains a Subject and a Predicate '.

To differentiate clauses from phrases To understand the elements or attributes of a clause To know how to use the structure –clause correctly. To communicate effectively using the structure -clause. Process objectives - Logical reasoning -Co-operation in learning tasks -Improving concept building strategies -Develops communication skills Phase1 presentation of data and identification of concept- Teacher presents labeled examples Positive examples 1. Pe ople who pay their debts are trusted. 2. We can not start while it is raining. 3. He has a chain, which is made of gold. 4. I think you have made a mistake Negative examples 1.The sun rises in the east. 2.There came a giant to my door. 3. He has a chain of gold

- Students compare attributes in positive and negative examples Essential attributes in positive Examples 1 .contains a group of words . 2 makes sense but not complete sense 3.These group of words form part of a sentence. 4 These group of words contain a Subject and a Predicate. Non-essential Attributes 1. May contains a relative pronoun like-who, whom, whose, which etc. 2.The relative pronoun can be omitted. 3. May contain ‘If’ or ‘unless’ 4. Can be used in any type of sentences - in statement, interrogative (questions) , imperative, or exclamatory sentences. - Students generate and test hypotheses Hypothesis 1- I think you have made a mistake -Testing: yes, because , The relative pronoun can be omitted.

Hypothesis 2: Where is the book, I gave you yesterday? Testing: Yes, because, it can be used in a question. -Students state a definition according to the essential attributes -Definition :-A group of words which forms a part of sentence and contains a Subject and a Predicate is called a Clause. Phase II Students identify additional unlabelled examples . as Yes or No 1.It was a sunset of great beauty. (no) 2.This is the man whom I met yesterday. (yes)

3.The meeting (which) I attended yesterday was crowded. (yes) 4.Where is the book, I gave you yesterday? (yes) 5.If he works hard he will get a first class. (yes) 6. You can go by bus or train. (yes) Teacher confirms hypotheses ,names concept and restatesdefinitions according to essential attributes -Name of the concept- clause -Definition: A group of words which forms a part of sentence and contains a Subject and a Predicate is called a Clause. -Students generate their own examples 1. He is not only a good athlete but also a good engineer. 2.We laughed when we heard the joke. 3.I saw a snake and ran away. 4. Tell me what is truth. Phase III

Analysis of thinking strategies - Students describe thoughts -Students discuss role of Hypotheses and attributes -Students, discuss type and number of hypotheses Social System -Teacher should help the students to identify attributes of the concept chosen -Teacher should record and present additional data -Equal role to teacher and students (Moderate) Principles of Reaction -Teacher should help to test hypotheses -Support System -Text books ,Grammar books , charts, comprehensive list of examples, flash cards, reference books,Black board / LCD projector and Computer -----

Friday, March 18, 2011


a)Hearing Process
Hearing must proceed listening. The human ear has three parts-1)the outer ear, 2)the middle ear, and 3) The inner ear.
b) Listening Process
Listening is hearing and perceiving a message. Hearing is a physiological process while listening is a mental process. Listening is a receptive skill but it is an active process.
The listening process has three stages-1) hearing, 2)processing and 3)evaluating.
c) Objective of Listening skill.
The specifications:-
The listener develops the ability to:-
1. receive information –general and specific
2.Distinguish between sounds
3. formulate attitudes and opinions
4. arrange events in sequences
5. know the interests of the speaker. familiar with functional categories
7. organize ideas.
d) Barriers affecting listening and comprehension
1)Linguistic barriers-difference in the linguistic levels of the speaker and listener.
2)Use of hard words /Registers of a particular branch of study.
3) Noisy Environment- listener will be distracted.
4)Psychological –Lack of interest from the part of the listener.
5) Negative attitude-causes unwillingness to listen.
6)Physiological-Partial or total hearing impairment.
7)Environmental- Impatience, interruption , preoccupation etc.
A good listener should overcome these barriers.
To make listening effective:-
1)practice note taking/note making.
2Keep alert and attentive.
3) read the handouts in advance , before the speech.
4)select conducive seats.
5)Take a positive and purposive attitude.
6)Focus attention on content.
7)identify main and supportive ideas.
e) Sub skills
Listening skill can be broadly divided in to two classes:-
a)Listening for sound perception-
The Sub skills are:
1) Distinguish the sound between L1 and L2. (phonemes)
2)Understanding the supra segmental features ( tone , stress, intonation etc)
4)The phonetic nature of English (discord between the pronunciation and spelling)
b)) Listening for meaning(comprehension)
The Sub skills are:
1) Prediction of the theme and word guess
2) Collocation of words
3) Grasping the mood and import of the speaker.
4) The logical development and sequence of the idea. Stylistics
5) Inferring the interest of the speaker.
6) Grasping the implications and suggestions –connotation
f) Listening Activities for developing the Sub skills
-Enough exposure to grasp the sound system of L2.
-Introduction of sound system before the graphics.
-teacher be the role model in pronunciation.
-use of minimal pairs
-sound practices in initial stages
-speech in meaningful phrases , at normal speed and volume
-instructions for activities
-use of facial expression and gestures
-use of AV aids and grids.
-motivate the learner for listening- being the basic skill .
g) Phases of Listening Activities
2)on listening
3) post listening
h) Types of Listening skills
-Broadly classified in to :-
1) Extensive and Intensive listening
2) listening for perception and listening for comprehension
3)Focused , selective and casual listening
More subtly classified as:-
4)discriminative listening –develops logical thinking.
5)critical listening- critically evaluates the validity / utility of a message.
6)Comprehensive listening –clear understanding and provision for follow up action
7)Therapeutic listening –superficial grasp of message
8)Appreciative listening.- leads to appreciation
i) Kinds of Listening Materials
-Authentic, recorded and live.
-BBC world services, Voice of America and similar broad-casts., edusat.
-pop songs in English,
-materials prepared by RIE, CIEFL etc.
-conversations related to real life situations-natural and spontaneous
j) Developing Listening Materials
-Teacher’s speech should the best material- Be a role model.
-Facilities for listening to radio broadcasts, telecasts, attending language labs,
-use of Lingua phone, gramophone and tape recorder.
-video production
-Tasks like Story Comprehension, Cloze passage (outline story completion), use of AV aids and dictation.
k) Evaluating Listening skill
Some of the strategies to assess listening skill are:-
1)Phoneme recognition test
2)Responding to stress and Intonation
5)Extended Communication
6)Polite forms
1. Sivarajan K., Ramakrishnan TV and Mridula K. (2007), English Language Education, Calicut University , (pg.53-62).
a)The process of Speaking
Speaking is the transmission of ideas. A number of sub skills such as articulation, enunciation , pronunciation and voice modulation have to be attained and integrated.
b)Objectives of Speaking skill
The important speaking skills to be attained are:-
The learner:-
is capable of producing English phonemes in isolation and in combination as well.
Capable of speaking with apt supra segmental features.
Speaks with apt words, and structures spontaneously.
Regulates speech according to the context.
1) ) Sound- phonological level
2) Supra segmental features- morphological level
3)Vocabulary - lexical level
4)Usage –syntactic level
5) Discourse –semantic level.
Three major areas
Mechanics of speaking- (pronunciation) .
Usage, vocabulary and language functions
Cultural and social contexts
d)Teaching Pronunciation
-Correct pronunciation is the mark of refined language and culture.
Objectives of teaching Pronunciation
1.concept of standard pronunciation
2.production of correct speech sounds
3.develops accuracy and fluency
4. interest in linguistics
5.Concept of supra segmental features
6. good speech manners
7.Awareness about production of speech sounds, vocal organs, manner and place of articulation,
8.comparive study of L1 and L2 speech sounds
9. impressive non-verbal language.
10. speaks discourses effectively according to the contexts.
Causes for difficulties in pronunciation
-not conversant with the standard pronunciation.
-mother tongue interference
-auditory problems.
-lack of awareness about supra segmental features.
-lack of exposure
-lack of opportunities to speak.
-no examination in phonetics
-phonetic nature of English language.
-written passages without marking supra segmental features.
Methods to promote correct pronunciation
1.Perception and Initiation –The perceives and repeats the words written and spoken , until he can pronounce it properly.
2.Phonetic method- scientific and realistic and basic manner. –learns the fundamentals of phonetics
The 44 basic sounds made from the 26 letters of the alphabet.
-Singing songs, reciting poems, and loud reading employed
Geoffery Broughton et. al,(Teaching English as a Foreign Language suggests few steps.
Suggestions for improving pronunciation :-
1.pursue right pronunciation .
2. use of AV aids-(diagram of speech organs, IPA charts, tape recorder, language lab, radio etc.)
3.Recognition and production practice
4.interest in phonetics
5.Opportunities for oral tasks
7.psychological methods
8. variety of methods
9.For Upper primary classes-awareness of the Phonetic principles and symbols of IPA, illustration of the vocal organs.
At high school level- A clear picture of the vocal organs, -active and passive , manner and place of articulation, voiced and voiceless , vowels and consonants etc.
e)Phases of Speaking activities
1)Phase 1-unskilled speaker needs encouragement
2) Phase 2-initiate conversation in a small group, use adequate vocabulary for informal communication
3) Phase 3-self assured and get involved in peer discussion, enriched vocabulary and confidence in facing audience
4) Phase 4-independent autonomous speaker. Expected at high school level.
-Teaching English –Thompson and Wyatt gives a detailed description.
f) Characteristics of an Oral skill lesson
“Speech is the ground work, all the rest are built from it”.(F.G.French)
-Exposure to a variety of styles and strategies.
g)Objectives of an oral lesson
1.become an efficient speaker.
2.skillful in organization and delivery of ideas.
3.Develops communicative skills
4.partipation in a variety of contexts
5. insights in to theories of communication and the nature of English language.
h) suggestions to make an oral lesson successful.
1.selection and gradation of items
2.chance to converse with close friends first
3. encouragement to speak
4. vocabulary extension
5.qualified and linguistically minded teacher
6.curriculum with scope for opral work works
8 individual attention
9.attentive listening and right speaking habits.

i)Speaking Activities for developing the Sub skills
3)Description /narration
4) Group Discussion
5)Pair work
6)Information gap filling tasks
7)Asking questions
8)running commentaries
9) Imagining
10) News reading
11) problem solving
The resourcefulness of the teacher is the main factor.
j)How to evaluate speaking skill?
Speaking is hardly evaluated due to :-
1.large classes
2.lack of facilities
3.time consuming
4.faulty exam system
5.little scope for interview and viva-voce
1 UGC Curriculum Development Centre (1989)
2.Bachman and Palmer Model (1996)
3.Alderson Thompson and Wyatt
k)Assessing performance
-Continuous comprehensive evaluation
-Evaluation every sub skills
-provision for feedback.

2. Sivarajan K., Ramakrishnan TV and Mridula K. (2007), English Language Education, Calicut University , (Pg. 63-78)


a)Reading  Process
reading is the reception of meaning from the written language. It is the ability to interpret linguistic sounds in their graphic and symbolic representation.
An active receptive skill.  Constitutes -Interpreting, Evaluating and constructing meaning.
Comprehension takes place in three levels –
Literal meaning, interpretation   of meaning and evaluation of meaning.
Edgar Dale –reading on the lines, reading between the lines, reading beyond the lines respectively.
Reading for- knowledge, pleasure and culture.
b) Sub-skills
Factors influencing reading readiness
1. Physical or physiological. or environmental.
3.emotional or motivational  
4.mental or intellectual.
c) Mechanics of Reading skill.
-Eye movements in jerks – training to enlarge eye span.
Various methods of teaching reading
  1. Analytical method
a)Alphabetic method -pays attention to individual letter in  alphabetic method. Traditional , systematic and easy. Speed will not be developed.
b)Phonic method -pays attention to individual  sounds in  phonic method. Words is read in its constituent phonemes.-familiar with sounds in early stages itself - difficult in the beginning. Linguists prefer this method.
  1. Synthetic method
The three different perspectives
a)      The word method / look and say method
Word is introduced and meaning bond is created. –interesting. –speedy progress and psychological. Not easy to teach all words.
b)      The phrasal method/sentence method
Reading by meaningful phrases. Sentence is the unit of reading.-meaningful learning. Problematic for beginners. Practical only in advanced stages. Suitable for teaching in the situational approach.
c)      Paragraph method/story method
Paragraph is the unit for reading. –interesting. –lack of books. Simple stories on BB or charts used.

A combination of the methods according to the level and purpose should be employed.
d)     Reading Problems and Defects
A)Faulty Reading Habits
1. finger pointing  reduces speed of reading.
2. Spreading the spit
3.Regression –eye moving backward
4.Vocalization –tendency to read word by word and not in sense groups
5. Sub vocalization- whispering on the passage in silent reading.
6. absent mindedness.
B) Defective Reading
Happens from two sources
1.Opthalmic (defective eye sight)
2. Neurological –stammering, alexia
e)Types of Reading 
1.loud reading
2.Silent reading
3.Intensive reading
4.Extensive reading
f) Phases of Reading  Activities
1.Understanding sound system
2.Understanding the relationship between sentence and clause
3.recognizing the effects of style.
4. recognizing organization of a text
5.Making inferences
6.Extensive reading
7.Skimming for gist.
8.Scanning for specific information
9.Reading for details.
g) Techniques and Mechanical devices for improving speed and comprehension
h)Teaching Elementary Reading
i)Teaching Advanced Reading Skills
2.structural clues
3.morphological information
 4.inference from context.
j) Types of reading materials to develop reading skills
2. background
3.Subject matter
k) Setting up a class library
-keep a class library consists of variety of interesting  resources.
-be enthusiastic and stimulate the learners.
-give a gist and interesting features of the publications.
-manuscript magazine
-A glossary of unfamiliar words to be attached with the books.
- materials
l) Evaluating reading skill

1.      Sivarajan K., Ramakrishnan TV and Mridula K. (2007), English Language Education, Calicut University , (pg.79-95).



a)Writing Process

Writing skill in writing begins with simply copying and ranges to free self expression.
Writing is not restricted to writing on paper only as in the past. Its scope has widened due to the advent of modern information and communication technology.
b)Different forms of writing
Writing has two main aspects, the mechanics of writing and the purpose and organization of writing.
c)Sub skills of writing
(i) Mechanics of handwriting, spelling and punctuation.
(ii) Word choice i.e. vocabulary, idiom, phrase, tone etc.
(iii) Organization i.e. ideas, paragraphs, topics cohesion and unity.
(iv) Syntax i.e. structure and boundaries of sentence, choice of stylistics etc.
(v) Grammar i.e. verb agreement, articles, pronouns etc.
(vi) Content i.e. relevance, clarity, originality, logic, sequence etc.
(vii) Purpose i.e. the relevance and justification for writing.

B)Developing Writing Skills

d) One technique each to develop each sub-skills
(i) Spelling : Correlate spelling and reading when news words are introduced. -Spelling book of confusing words, use mnemonics etc.
(ii) Handwriting : copy writing from other books, blackboard etc. Competition on handwriting ,
(iii) Punctuation : They act as sign posts for easy, clear understanding of written material.
(iv) Brainstorming with words, phrases, notes, connected ideas etc.
(v) Vocabulary : Selecting vocabulary to convey attitude and implied meaning.
(vi) Language use : Ability to write correct and appropriate sentences.
(vii) Treatment of content : Ability to think creatively and develop thoughts, excluding all irrelevant information.
(viii) Stylistic skills : Ability to manipulate sentences and paragraphs and use language effectively.
(ix) Judgment skills : Ability to write in an appropriate manner for a particular purpose with a particular audience in mind.
e) Mechanics of writing
While teaching a language, we develop number of skills in our students. Writing is one those communication skills. Moreover, writing makes the record permanent.
In teaching the mechanics of writing of English alphabet, the teacher has the advantage that his students have learnt it in the process of acquiring their mother tongue, though in a different way. The students now know how to hold the writing materials, at what suitable distance and how the physical posture should be etc.
A few decades ago 4 types of English alphabet were taught to students: the civil round hand and cursive writing, the block capital letters and small letters (for print). But now, for handwriting, only block capital letters and cursive letters (Italic) are being taught and practiced, because that is enough.
Italic writing is accepted and instructed in our schools for children’s hand writing with block capitals wherever necessary. One important thing is in writing the letters should be either vertical or slanting towards the right a little, not slanting to the left. The body of the letters should have uniform size.
The few other features to be made part of our habit of writing are: letters in words should be distinctive, proper spacing should be given between words (one space), between the ending of a sentence and the beginning of the next (two spaces). Committing mistakes in spelling will be constructed badly by the readers. Italic writing as described above can be made perfect by practice for a few days and speed can be increased.
If practiced, we can make our handwriting very legible, beautiful and attractive.
f)Handwriting Skills
Good handwriting is an asset with the learner. good handwriting means legible writing which does not strain the mind of the reader. The reader can read it easily, nicely and fluently. The teacher must have attractive handwriting. Simultaneously, the speed of writing should be maintained.
g) Characteristics of Good Handwriting
Legible and clean writing will promote fluent, rapid reading. If the answer papers are written in good handwriting, the examiner will be motivated to go through it. Following are the characteristics of good handwriting.
(a) Distinctiveness: Every letter of a word is distinct. It is clearly visible. It can be recognized easily by the learner.
(b) Proper spacing: There is proper space between the different words of a sentence. It should be maintained throughout the writing.
(c) Size of the letter: The size of the letters is according to the age group of the learner. The same proportion is kept in the whole writing.
(d) Simplicity: The different letters of a word are written in a simple way.
(e) Straight lines: Good handwriting runs in straight lines/.
(f) Principle of four lined note book: That gives uniformity to the writing.
(g) Position of letters: The letters may be in erect position and also be in a forward slant positions.
(h) Good punctuation Marks: The punctuation should be correct
h)Techniques to develop good handwriting
Research studies proved that handwriting can be improved in many ways.
1. Teacher must give continuous guidance during the early stages of writing and his own writing must be a model.
2. Regular writing exercises should be given in lower classes copy writing / transcription.
3. Italic writing should be practiced.
4. Frequent competitions in handwriting will proved encouragement.
5. Posture, holding of the writing material e.g. the black board are important factors to be considered.
6. At early stages, the students should be encouraged to make use of four –line note books.
7. Good handwriting should be displayed in the classroom to motivate the students.
i)Paper format
· Full size paper
· Margin
· Skip a line between title and first line.
· Distinct letters
· No decorative loops.
· Correct punctuation marks.
· Breaking words only between syllabus
· Attractive
· Neat, easy to read
j)Capital letters and Punctuation Marks
Use capital letters whenever is necessary.
Use Numbers, Abbreviations, Punctuations, Apostrophe, Quotation Marks, Comma, Colon, Semi –Colon, Dash, Hyphen and parenthesis to set off extra or incidental information from the rest of a sentence.
Thus writing is a complex act which has to be analyzed. One part of it is dependent on motor mechanisms, and the other represents real work of the intellect.
k) Phases of writing Activities
1. Tracing the letters and copying continue for two three years. Improving handwriting will be advisable.
2.In the High school stage fairly adequate skill in writing well organized paragraphs and letters with cohesion, sequence and in a logical way using proper connectors. Spelling games and word building games can be provided.
l)Creative writing (Composition )
All types of writing gradually leads one to creative types of writing. Guided composition enables a person to write tree composition and that paves way to creative writing. A person is enabled to write reviews, short stories, dialogues etc. and the same may be used in the college magazine or may be published somewhere in the standard magazine.
Developing a composition should involve the following steps:1. Pre composition, 2.Oral composition, 3.Writing composition , and 4. Correction work.
By the time pupils begin to write confidently they should be encouraged to write imaginatively according to their choices.
m)Objectives of Creative writing
The following may be regarded as the major purposes of Creative writing.
a. Instill Confidence
b. Give pleasure
c. Sense of achievement
d. Relieve psychic pressure
e. Writing for the public eye :
f. Good use of leisure time
n) Evaluating writing skill
Evaluated mainly at terminal or annual exams.
Evaluating writing skill is to be seen in two areas
The mechanics of writing
While evaluating the mechanics of writing , we need to see that the pupils should write with 1.legibility, 2.Simplicity, 3.Uniformity in size, 4.Distinctiveness, 5.Spacing, 6.Spelling, 7.Punctuation, and 8.Speed.
All these features can be evaluated through different strategies like copy writing and dictation
The organization and presentation of ideas.
To test cognitive skills , test like rearrange in to a logical sequence, outline expansion, supplying the omitted connectives and the similar teacher made creative devices can be used.
o)Correction Rules and correction signals
1. Correction Rules
-class correction and self correction to be encouraged.
-individual correction as far as possible.
-common mistakes correction orally and using the B.B.
2.correction signals
-In professional journalism sixty signals are used for proof reading. In class room correction , a minimum number is required.
Teacher should make children familiar with the signals she is going to use, in advance. A feasible list of signals is given in (pg.- 113).
3. Sivarajan K., Ramakrishnan TV and Mridula K. (2007), English Language Education, Calicut University , (pg.96-113).

Monday, February 28, 2011

705 Unit Seven

Unit 7 Evaluation
Unit summary
7.1. Formative and summative evaluation
7.2. Continuous and comprehensive evaluation
7.3. grading.

Evaluation is the systematic collection and interpretation of evidence leading as a part of process to a judgement of value with a view of action. Evaluation is the collection, analysis and interpretation of information about any aspect of a program of education as part of a recognized process of judging its effectiveness, its efficiency and any other outcome it may have. The required data is to be gathered in a systematic, planned, precise way. The information obtained is to be interpreted meaningfully to arrive at a judgement on the efficiency in realizing the goal. It should aim at successful future action. It helps us to realize objectives, check learning readiness, report students’ progress and diagnosis. Evaluation provides feedback to the students. They can know the strengths and weakness in various areas and have a check of study habits, interests etc. Diagnosis and remedies are the most important areas of application of evaluation. The objectives, learning experiences etc. are directly related to evaluation. Thus, in the planning stage itself, teachers formulate techniques for evaluation. During teaching and also during post learning, evaluation and its results play vital role. For promotion, placement, grading, grouping etc. also the academic and non-academic aspects are to be evaluated.

Evaluation has a wide range of application in the areas of human activity. When we consider educational evaluation, it would be found to cover a large variety of aspects or dimensions. These include evaluation of the various infrastructure required for the proper functioning of an educational institution in terms of the norms fixed. The various academic inputs such as the curriculum, text books, instruction materials, laboratory, library etc. have to be got evaluated as to how well these could meet the requirements for effective instruction. While discussing the concept of evaluation, citing the example of the Mathematics achievement score of a student, it was shown how evaluation acts as a motivating force self-evaluation by the teacher, leading to adoption of modified techniques and strategies of instructions for the purpose for realizing the anticipated educational goal. It encompasses all aspects of instructions such as planning of goal oriented learning activities, adopting appropriate strategies for curriculum transaction, gaining feedback leading to knowledge of results, diagnosing deficiencies, monitoring, adopting remedial measures for better results etc. This is why evaluation has to be conceived as an integral part of the instructional process. While analyzing the concept of evaluation, it was pointed out that as part of the instructional process, a teacher will have to go on making value judgement about the quality of learning in terms of pupil performance. The need for a teacher to gain a thorough insight into the nature and scope of each of these goals was also highlighted in the view of its crucial role in making evaluation scientific and reliable.

The comprehensive system of educational evaluation helps in maximizing the output of education which is being planned as a developmental endeavour. The very broad scope of educational evaluation goes much beyond the conduct of examination as usually conceived by most people. According to Donnie, the purpose of evaluation is to provide information for grading, evaluate the effectiveness of teaching methods, and motivate the students, evaluating the entire program of an educational institution, collecting information for effective education, vocation, counseling and guidance. In broader sense, the significance of evaluation can be divided into learning level, teaching level, guidance and counselling level, curriculum development level, school administration level and classroom research level.

Functions of Evaluation

Functions of educational evaluation may be divided into two major categories.
1. Functions associated with the instructional process which involves both learning and teaching.
2. Functions associated with the educational system as a whole.
To make education a developmental endeavour, it should satisfy three aspects.

They are totality (comprehensiveness), sustainability and transferability. The functions of educational evaluation are Measurement function, Diagnostic function, Guidance and remediation, Motivating function, Assessment of final output, Classification and placement function, Prognosis, Prediction and Selection function and Setting up of norms. Improvement of input and maximization of output are the functions related to the whole educational system.

Types of Evaluation

Since evaluation has many functions, there are different types of evaluation. They are helpful because they add specificity to the goals and plan of action. They are
¨ Norm referenced evaluation
¨ Criterion referenced evaluation
¨ Formative evaluation
¨ Summative evaluation
¨ Scholastic evaluation
¨ Co-scholastic evaluation
¨ Competency-based and objective-based evaluation
¨ Continuous and comprehensive evaluation
Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation

The diversity of functions and the variety in the types and models of educational evaluation highlights the limitations of existing examination procedures followed for evaluating pupil performance as well as other related phenomenon. This also points the urgent need for a new perspective about a more effective strategy for evaluating all aspects of the educational system, especially evaluation of the performance of pupils who are educated for development. This is the reason why the Program of Action of the National Policy of Education stresses the need for building up a system of ‘Continuous and Comprehensive’ evaluation. Implementing formative evaluation at every stage using a variety of techniques ranging from observation to testing with the help of appropriate tools designed for accurate measurement is the first operational requirement of such a system. The educational values of such continuous evaluation and the functions served by it in achieving development are great. Equally important is the need for making evaluation comprehensive. Instead of limiting summative evaluation to a written examination asking for knowledge of information, all the components of the expected output by way of changes in various domains of human activity will have to be assessed all along and the cumulative result of this exercise has to be taken as the measure for ascertaining the level of pupil performance.

In short, continuous and comprehensive evaluation alone can ensure that education succeeds in fulfilling its ultimate aim, namely, promoting the ‘total development’ of the individual and the nation alike.

The first Indian University Commission, 1902 had expressed long ago in very strong language its disapproval of the examination system prevalent at that time, in view of its harmful consequences. The Commission pointed out “…the greatest evil from which the system of university education in India suffers is that teaching is subordinated to examinations and not examination to teaching”. The first University Education Commission appointed in free India, 1948-49 also pointed out that “…if we are to suggest a single reform in University Education, it should be that of the examinations”. The Secondary Education Commission, 1952-53 and later the Kothari Commission, 1964-66 also has stated in very emphatic terms the urgency for implementing examination reforms.

Along with these severe criticisms, proposals for implementation were also made. These in general were meant for organizing an examination system that centered round different aspects of education, which included (i) Introduction of semester systems (ii) Internal assessment (iii) Implementing grading system (iv) De-linking degrees from jobs (v) Development of question banks (vi) Monitoring examination reforms and (vii) Establishment of evaluation units. Many attempts were made by the UGC to implement some of these suggestions at the University level during the period between 1951 and 1961. In spite of these attempts, many proposed reforms could not work mainly due to the absence of a statutory body with authority and responsibility for implementing plans of actions. In 1969, the Commission appointed a committee for Examination Reforms in Central Universities. This Committee recommended certain ‘innovative’ programs such as ‘credit system’ and ‘semester system’ and released booklets on these. Four areas were highlighted on the basis of the recommendations made by various commissions and committees. These were (i) Continuous ‘Internal Evaluation’ as a supplement to the existing final examination (ii) Development of ‘Question Banks’ in order to eliminate some of the short comings of the setting of question papers (iii) Introduction of the ‘Grading System’ in the place of the existing marking system (iv) Introduction of the ‘Semester System’.

The evaluation has to be comprehensive with respect to the learning material learnt and developmental course anticipated. Developmental education warrants ‘totality’, ‘sustainability’ and ‘transferability’ of development. Totality warrants development in all areas of human behaviour and related competencies which include cognitive (intellectual) changes, affective (emotional) changes and psycho-motor changes. Education aims at the upbringing of a balanced personality through the development of all three domains. Backwardness in any of these will be reflected in the individual in one way or the other. The trend in the system of examination had been just the assessment of cognitive abilities of the child on the erroneous belief that if cognition is there, affective and psycho-motor abilities must have developed automatically. Evidences are there to conclude that teaching for the development of cognitive aspects can adversely affect the affective behaviour and psycho-motor abilities of the child. Various methods, techniques and tools of evaluation can be made use of in collecting evidence on the students’ developments in all desirable directions. The problem lies in the fact that it is difficult to change and measure affective behaviour and also areas of psycho-motor development, the measurement of which demands much time and attention. Another difficulty is that behavioural objectives have not yet been stated clearly. Still, the classroom teacher can assess the outcomes directly and indirectly through certain techniques.

Internal assessment of all activities of the students is one method. It can be based on continuous appraisal of certain behaviours and activities. Class attendance, periodic tests, class-work, home work etc. can be different techniques for assessment of affective variables like punctuality, regularity, systematic work, responsibility etc. The development of social behaviour and values can be assessed by observing their participation in community service, help rendered to peers or co-operation in any type of activity. Personal and social adjustments shown by the child in real situation can be an indicator of his affective development. Self appraisal by the students is an indirect way to assess their nature – cooperation, self-worth, self-reliance, beliefs etc. Aptitude tests, interest inventories, attitude scale, tools which measure critical thinking ability etc. can be used. Sociometric techniques also can be applied.

Along with an academic profile of the students, a personal profile can also be kept by the teacher. Everyday events noticed about the child can be written. It can be about participation in school activities, initiatives taken, cheerfulness, self-control, behaviour towards his friends and elders, way of handling books and other equipments etc. Student portfolio is a record which tells the teacher about the child’s overall performance and talents in academic area, literature, sports, arts etc.

The psycho-motor development is to be corresponding to the stages of growth and the teacher can measure it by giving performance tests, practicals, speed and quality tests etc. The ability to effectively coordinate both the psychic and physical abilities becomes revealed in written expressions, oral expressions, in reading skill, activities which made creative thinking and practical problem solving situations. The play-way method can be adopted for this purpose.

Along with these tools and techniques, feedback from peer group, parents and the community will have much contribution in the area of non-cognitive development. Accurate and appropriate, object assessment will become easy for the classroom teacher if we succeed in formulating specifications for such behavioural changes.

The tools for Continuous Comprehensive Evaluation

The tools for Continuous Comprehensive Evaluation are
(i) Project
(ii) Assignment
(iii) Practical (Oral testing)
(a) Reading aloud
(b) Recitation
(c) Role-play
(d) Mock interview
(e) Extempore speech
(iv) Collections of library items
(v) Research or creative work
(vi) Seminar or debate
(vii) Class tests


Portfolio is the minister’s record. A student’s portfolio is also the record of what he has done and achieved. It can be the record of a session, semester or year. It should reflect both the process and the product. Daily experiences worth noting can be written, reports of class or school events, personal feelings etc. can be included which will present an overview of what happened in the academic domain of the learner. It can be used as a tool for evaluation, but there will be subjectivity in scoring. A scoring key may be made use of based on certain essential criteria.

Teaching Portfolio

A professional portfolio is an evolving collection of carefully selected or composed professional thoughts, goals and experiences that are threaded with reflection and self-assessment. It represents the who, what, why, where, how etc. of the professional. A student teacher’s portfolio is an evidence of the standard of performance and it serves as a source of review and reflection. It is a systematic, selective collection of student work to demonstrate his motivation, academic growth and level of achievement. When the collection includes the student’s own reflections of the work, it becomes a real representation of student learning.


The collection of materials in a portfolio can be grouped into five. They are evidences of
(i) Understanding of subject matter and current developments e.g. Qualifications, courses undergone, comments on the course curriculum; review of a few books, essays or methodology followed, observation report of a colleague.
(ii) Skills and competencies in teaching e.g. lesson plan, self-evaluation report, examples of student work, video recording of class, report by supervisor, a few teaching materials, notes of appreciation from past students
(iii) Approach to classroom management and organization e.g. a brief description of philosophy of classroom management, observation report of a peer, written comments by a supervisor, students’ account of effectiveness of classroom management
(iv) Commitment to professional development. e.g. a professional development plan, observation report of the peers, details of classroom research, related courses undergone, membership in professional organizations, report of articles.
(v) Information concerning relationship with colleagues. e.g. details of assistance given to peers, report of friendly relation with peers and institution, help provided to peers for their professional development.

(b)Organization of contents

Philosophy of teaching
Course outline
Lesson plan
Explanation of artifacts
Comments/review on artifacts
Commentary/ review of the meaning of the portfolio

Types of portfolio

Types of portfolio are
(a) Product portfolio or Show care portfolio – content includes products that are students, best work which exhibits the range and quality of work
(b) Process or effort portfolio – drafts leading to completed products to show how works evolute.
(c) Progress or Working portfolio – for comparison of identical work, samples overtime are included to show student improvement.

The student teachers must be informed whether the number of items presented alone is important or that the contents and quality also will be taken into account at the time of assessment. Anyway, portfolio is complete with student work, student reflection on the work, assessment by teachers, parents, social members etc.

Jesa, M, “Contemporary English Teaching (Methodology and Pedagogy)”, K.M.K, Publications, Mayyanad, Kollam.
Sivarajan, K, “English Language Education”, Premier Offset Printers, Calicut, December 2007.
Vashist, S, R, “The Theory of Educational Evaluation”, Anmol Publications, New Delhi. 2004.


705 Unit Six

Unit 6 Instructional aids and strategies
Unit summary
6.1. Importance
6.2. Aids –types –Realia, models, blackboard, flashcards, wall charts, transparencies, CDs, language laboratories, computer.
6.3.Strategies- Collaborative learning, pair work, language games.

705 Unit Five

Unit 5 Models of teaching
Unit summary
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Concept attainment model
5.3. Synectic Model

705 Unit Four

Unit 4Developing study skills
Unit summary
4.1. Locating information (dictionary, Thesaurus ,-Reference skills)
4.2. Gathering information-skimming, scanning, intensive and extensive reading-SQ3R
4.3. Storing information (Note making, note taking, summarizing and information transfer).
4.4. Retrieving information(using technology and computer ).

705 Unit Three

Unit 3 Development of teacher competency
Unit summary
3.1. Micro Teaching(Introduction)
3.2. Steps and phases
3.3. Various skills developed through micro teaching
*******MICRO TEACHING*******
-First adopted in Stanford University, USA in1961
-Dwight W Allen and co-workers
- Training procedure for teacher preparation aimed at simplifying the complexities of the regular teaching process
-To acquire new teaching skills and to refine old ones
- New design for teacher training ,which provides trainees with feedback about their performance immediately after completion of a micro lesson
-A scaled down teaching encounter in a class size and class time (Allen)
- A scaled down sample of teaching in which a teacher teaches a small unit to a small group of 5 to 10 pupils for a small period of 5 to 10 minutes
- A teacher training procedure which reduces the teaching situation to simpler and more controlled encounter achieved by limiting the practice teaching to a specific skill and reducing teaching time and class size
Why Micro ? - Reasons
- Small group
-Short duration
-Small piece of content
-Concentrates at a time on a single sub skill of the major skill
-Microteaching provides an opportunity for faculty and teaching assistants to improve their teaching practices through a “teach, critique, re-teach” model.
-Microteaching is valuable for both new and experienced faculty to hone their teaching practices.
-It is often used in pre-service teacher training programs to provide additional experience before or during the clinical experiences
-Microteaching is a concentrated, focused form of peer feedback and discussion that can improve teaching strategies.
-It was developed in the early and mid 1960’s by Dwight Allen and his colleagues at the Stanford Teacher Education Program (Politzer, 1969).
-The microteaching program was designed to prepare the students for their internships in the fall. In this early version of microteaching, pre-service teachers at Stanford taught part-time to a small group of pupils (usually 4 to 5).
-The pupils were high school students who were paid volunteers and represented a cross-section of the types of students the pre-service teachers would be faced with during their internships.
-Ultimately, microteaching is a useful technique for teaching soft skills, presentation skills, and interpersonal skills.
-This focused approach encourages growth through practice and critique. The “teach, critique, re-teach” model gives the faculty immediate feedback and increases retention by providing an opportunity for practice.
Why use microteaching?
-Microteaching has several benefits. Because the lessons are so short (usually 5 to 10 minutes), they have to focus on specific strategies.
-This means that someone participating in a microteaching session can get feedback on specific techniques he or she is interested in exploring.
-In a pre-service or training situation, participants can practice a newly learned technique in isolation rather than working that technique into an entire lesson (Vare, 1993).
-Microteaching is also an opportunity to experiment with new teaching techniques.
-Rather than trying something new with a real class, microteaching can be a laboratory to experiment and receive feedback, first (Kuhn, 1968).
How does micro-teaching work?
-In the classic Stanford model, each participant teaches a short lesson, generally 5 to 10 minutes, to a small group.
-The “students” may be actual students like in the original Stanford program or they may be peers playing the role of students.
-The presentation is followed by a feedback session.
- In some cases, the feedback session can be followed by a re-teach, so that the faculty has an opportunity to practice the improvements suggested during feedback (Vare, 1993).
Giving Feedback
-Receiving criticism is difficult for everyone.
-Setting a tone of respect and professionalism may help participants to be tactful and to keep feedback constructive.
Ground Rules
-Here is an example of ground rules used by the CASTL program at California State University :-
-Respect confidentiality concerning what we learn about each other.
-Respect agreed-upon time limits. This may be hard, but please understand that it is necessary.
-Maintain collegiality. We’re all in this together.
-Stay psychologically and physically present and on task.
-Respect others’ attempts to experiment and to take risks.
-Listen and speak in turn, so everyone can hear all comments.
-Enjoy and learn from the process!
-Feedback should be constructive and based on observation, rather than judgments.
-A good example of feedback is “You fidget with your pen while talking, and that is distracting,” rather than “You seem nervous and unprepared.”
-The first comment is about observable behavior, while the second is a judgment about what that behavior means.
-Commenting on observable behavior also leads to suggestions for improvement.
-A better example of feedback would be “You fidget with your pen while talking. Perhaps it would be better to keep a hand in your pocket.”
-In the Stanford model, feedback was given using a 2+2 system.
-Each participant started his/her feedback with two positive comments, followed by two suggestions for improvement.
-This gives the faculty a sense of his or her strengths as well as areas of improvement .
How can micro-teaching be used?
-The most common application for microteaching is in pre-service teacher training, like the original Stanford model.
-However, that certainly isn’t the only application.
-To enable teacher- trainees to learn and assimilate new teaching skills under controlled conditions
-To enable teacher- trainees to gain confidence in teaching and to master a number of skills by dealing with a small group of pupils
-Scaled down teaching
-Less complex than regular teaching
-Involves lesser number of students, usually 5 to 10
-Duration is short-about 5 to 10 minutes
1.Knowledge Acquisition phase
Observe-Trainees observe the demonstration of skill by Teacher Educator
Analyse -Trainees and the Teacher Educator discuss the demonstration
2.Skill acquisition Phase
Prepare-Trainees prepare the micro lesson
Practice-Trainees practice the pre-determined skill
3.Transfer Phase
Evaluate-Observers evaluate the performance of the Trainee
Transfer-Trainees transfer the skill to actual teaching situation
-Defining the skills to be developed in terms of specific teaching behaviour
-Demonstration of the skill by the teacher educator by taking a lesson
-Based on the model, preparation of a micro lesson plan by the teacher trainee, for a suitable content item ,which calls for application of the skill anticipated
-Teaching of the lesson by the teacher trainee in a stimulated set up, in the presence of observers
-Providing of immediate feedback to the teacher trainee by the observers with a view to help him improve the skill
-Arranging re-planning, re-teaching and re-feedback sessions
-Repetition of plan, teach, feedback,re-plan,re-teach and re-feedback cycle till the skill is mastered
-Integration of skills
-Integration of sub skills into the major skill-Link Practice / Link lessons
-After practising 3 sub skills separately , the trainee may combine all the 3 sub skills in a lesson of 10 minutes
-Then practises another set of 3 sub skills separately and links them
-Then combines all the 6 sub-skills in a single lesson of 15 minutes
-The procedure is repeated till all the sub skills are combined in a macro lesson of 40 minutes and teaching a full class
Micro Teaching
-Small teaching unit
- Small learning group
-Short duration
-Teaching under controlled conditions
-Immediate feedback
-Teacher concentrates on one teaching skill at a time
-Simple teaching
-Role of the supervisor is specific and well defined
Macro teaching
-Large teaching unit
-Large group(40-50)
-Long duration(40-45 min)
-Teaching –not under controlled condition
-Immediate feedback-not gained
-Several skills at a time
-Complex teaching
-Role of the supervisor is not specific and well defined
-Teacher trainees perform well after M T training
-Employs a training strategy specially meant for the purpose of developing skills
-Helps accomplish specific teacher competencies
-Teaching practice gain a higher degree of organisation
( Time, No. of students etc.. could be controlled)
-Helps gain deeper knowledge due to feedback and re-plan, re-teach cycles
-More effective in modifying teacher behaviour
-Helps in developing important teaching skills (questioning, providing reinforcement, increasing pupil participation)
-Effective technique for transfer of teaching competencies to classroom situations.
- Provides many opportunities to trainees to build up desired pattern of behaviour in a non-threatening set up
-Skill oriented-content is not emphasised
-Emphasises specific skills ;but may result in the neglect of integrated skills
-Covers only a few specific skills
-May raise administrative problems while arranging micro lessons


705 Unit Two

Unit 2Approaches and methods in language teaching
Unit summary
Brief review of :
2.1. Grammar translation method
2.2. Direct method
2.3. Bilingual method
2.4. Structiral-Oral-situational approach
2.5. Natural approach
2.6. Suggestopedia
Detailed study of:
2.7. Communicative approach

705 Unit One

Unit 1 Principles of learning a language
Unit summary
1.1.Linguistic principles
1.2. Psychological principles
1.3. psycho linguistic principles (behaviourism, Cognitivism, and constructivism)
1.4. Chomskyan theory of language learning (language acquisition device, Universal grammar).

704 Unit Seven

Unit 7 English Curriculum
Unit summary
7.1. Meaning and definition-modern trends in curriculam contruction-principles, different approaches, in organizing curriculum.
7.2. Critical evaluation of existing English curricular at secondary and higher secondary level in Kerala.
7.3. curriculum Vs. syllabus
7.4. Characteristics of a good text book , work book and handbook.

704 Unit Six

Unit 6 Vocabulary and Grammar
Unit summary
6.1. 0.Vocabulary –selection and gradation,-
6.1.1.Vocabulary -Types(active, passive, content and structural).
6.1.2.-Techniques of presenting vocabulary.-
6.1.3.Vocabulary expansion techniques.
6.1.4.Spelling –regularities and irregularities, spelling rules.
6.2.0 Grammartypes (prescriptive, descriptive, formal and functional)
6.2.1.Methods (inductive and decductive)
6.2.2.selection and gradation of structures.

704 Unit Five

Unit 5 Language Skills
Unit summary
5.1. Listening-Sub skills-activities for developing sub skills. Types of listening skill(extensive, intensive, focussed, selective and casual)
5.2. Speaking –sub skills- activities for developing sub skills-Evaluating speaking skill-scoring procedures( analytic and global impression marking scheme).
5.3.Reading-Sub skills-mechanics of reading, reading problems, kinds of reading, (choral and individual, loud and silent, extensive and intensive, literal, interpretive, creative and critical). Teaching elementary reading(analytic and synthetic methods setting up a class library.
5.4. Writing skills – subskills-Mechanics of writing, characteristics of good handwriting, punctuation, Composition-types(free and guided) correction rules.

704Unit Two

Unit 2 English Language Teacher and the Learner
Unit summary
2.1.Qualities of an English Language Teacher.
2.2. Learner factors in second language acquisition.(age, sex, intelligence, aptitude, motivation, personality disposition, cognitive style and attitude)

704Unit One

UNIT One English in India
Unit summary
1.1. Historical Development (pre-independent period, East-West controversy, Macaulay’s Minutes)
1.2. Status of English(Associate Official Language, Three language Formula)
Functions of English (Link language, international language, window to the world, language of the trade, science and technology.