Friday, March 18, 2011


a)Hearing Process
Hearing must proceed listening. The human ear has three parts-1)the outer ear, 2)the middle ear, and 3) The inner ear.
b) Listening Process
Listening is hearing and perceiving a message. Hearing is a physiological process while listening is a mental process. Listening is a receptive skill but it is an active process.
The listening process has three stages-1) hearing, 2)processing and 3)evaluating.
c) Objective of Listening skill.
The specifications:-
The listener develops the ability to:-
1. receive information –general and specific
2.Distinguish between sounds
3. formulate attitudes and opinions
4. arrange events in sequences
5. know the interests of the speaker. familiar with functional categories
7. organize ideas.
d) Barriers affecting listening and comprehension
1)Linguistic barriers-difference in the linguistic levels of the speaker and listener.
2)Use of hard words /Registers of a particular branch of study.
3) Noisy Environment- listener will be distracted.
4)Psychological –Lack of interest from the part of the listener.
5) Negative attitude-causes unwillingness to listen.
6)Physiological-Partial or total hearing impairment.
7)Environmental- Impatience, interruption , preoccupation etc.
A good listener should overcome these barriers.
To make listening effective:-
1)practice note taking/note making.
2Keep alert and attentive.
3) read the handouts in advance , before the speech.
4)select conducive seats.
5)Take a positive and purposive attitude.
6)Focus attention on content.
7)identify main and supportive ideas.
e) Sub skills
Listening skill can be broadly divided in to two classes:-
a)Listening for sound perception-
The Sub skills are:
1) Distinguish the sound between L1 and L2. (phonemes)
2)Understanding the supra segmental features ( tone , stress, intonation etc)
4)The phonetic nature of English (discord between the pronunciation and spelling)
b)) Listening for meaning(comprehension)
The Sub skills are:
1) Prediction of the theme and word guess
2) Collocation of words
3) Grasping the mood and import of the speaker.
4) The logical development and sequence of the idea. Stylistics
5) Inferring the interest of the speaker.
6) Grasping the implications and suggestions –connotation
f) Listening Activities for developing the Sub skills
-Enough exposure to grasp the sound system of L2.
-Introduction of sound system before the graphics.
-teacher be the role model in pronunciation.
-use of minimal pairs
-sound practices in initial stages
-speech in meaningful phrases , at normal speed and volume
-instructions for activities
-use of facial expression and gestures
-use of AV aids and grids.
-motivate the learner for listening- being the basic skill .
g) Phases of Listening Activities
2)on listening
3) post listening
h) Types of Listening skills
-Broadly classified in to :-
1) Extensive and Intensive listening
2) listening for perception and listening for comprehension
3)Focused , selective and casual listening
More subtly classified as:-
4)discriminative listening –develops logical thinking.
5)critical listening- critically evaluates the validity / utility of a message.
6)Comprehensive listening –clear understanding and provision for follow up action
7)Therapeutic listening –superficial grasp of message
8)Appreciative listening.- leads to appreciation
i) Kinds of Listening Materials
-Authentic, recorded and live.
-BBC world services, Voice of America and similar broad-casts., edusat.
-pop songs in English,
-materials prepared by RIE, CIEFL etc.
-conversations related to real life situations-natural and spontaneous
j) Developing Listening Materials
-Teacher’s speech should the best material- Be a role model.
-Facilities for listening to radio broadcasts, telecasts, attending language labs,
-use of Lingua phone, gramophone and tape recorder.
-video production
-Tasks like Story Comprehension, Cloze passage (outline story completion), use of AV aids and dictation.
k) Evaluating Listening skill
Some of the strategies to assess listening skill are:-
1)Phoneme recognition test
2)Responding to stress and Intonation
5)Extended Communication
6)Polite forms
1. Sivarajan K., Ramakrishnan TV and Mridula K. (2007), English Language Education, Calicut University , (pg.53-62).
a)The process of Speaking
Speaking is the transmission of ideas. A number of sub skills such as articulation, enunciation , pronunciation and voice modulation have to be attained and integrated.
b)Objectives of Speaking skill
The important speaking skills to be attained are:-
The learner:-
is capable of producing English phonemes in isolation and in combination as well.
Capable of speaking with apt supra segmental features.
Speaks with apt words, and structures spontaneously.
Regulates speech according to the context.
1) ) Sound- phonological level
2) Supra segmental features- morphological level
3)Vocabulary - lexical level
4)Usage –syntactic level
5) Discourse –semantic level.
Three major areas
Mechanics of speaking- (pronunciation) .
Usage, vocabulary and language functions
Cultural and social contexts
d)Teaching Pronunciation
-Correct pronunciation is the mark of refined language and culture.
Objectives of teaching Pronunciation
1.concept of standard pronunciation
2.production of correct speech sounds
3.develops accuracy and fluency
4. interest in linguistics
5.Concept of supra segmental features
6. good speech manners
7.Awareness about production of speech sounds, vocal organs, manner and place of articulation,
8.comparive study of L1 and L2 speech sounds
9. impressive non-verbal language.
10. speaks discourses effectively according to the contexts.
Causes for difficulties in pronunciation
-not conversant with the standard pronunciation.
-mother tongue interference
-auditory problems.
-lack of awareness about supra segmental features.
-lack of exposure
-lack of opportunities to speak.
-no examination in phonetics
-phonetic nature of English language.
-written passages without marking supra segmental features.
Methods to promote correct pronunciation
1.Perception and Initiation –The perceives and repeats the words written and spoken , until he can pronounce it properly.
2.Phonetic method- scientific and realistic and basic manner. –learns the fundamentals of phonetics
The 44 basic sounds made from the 26 letters of the alphabet.
-Singing songs, reciting poems, and loud reading employed
Geoffery Broughton et. al,(Teaching English as a Foreign Language suggests few steps.
Suggestions for improving pronunciation :-
1.pursue right pronunciation .
2. use of AV aids-(diagram of speech organs, IPA charts, tape recorder, language lab, radio etc.)
3.Recognition and production practice
4.interest in phonetics
5.Opportunities for oral tasks
7.psychological methods
8. variety of methods
9.For Upper primary classes-awareness of the Phonetic principles and symbols of IPA, illustration of the vocal organs.
At high school level- A clear picture of the vocal organs, -active and passive , manner and place of articulation, voiced and voiceless , vowels and consonants etc.
e)Phases of Speaking activities
1)Phase 1-unskilled speaker needs encouragement
2) Phase 2-initiate conversation in a small group, use adequate vocabulary for informal communication
3) Phase 3-self assured and get involved in peer discussion, enriched vocabulary and confidence in facing audience
4) Phase 4-independent autonomous speaker. Expected at high school level.
-Teaching English –Thompson and Wyatt gives a detailed description.
f) Characteristics of an Oral skill lesson
“Speech is the ground work, all the rest are built from it”.(F.G.French)
-Exposure to a variety of styles and strategies.
g)Objectives of an oral lesson
1.become an efficient speaker.
2.skillful in organization and delivery of ideas.
3.Develops communicative skills
4.partipation in a variety of contexts
5. insights in to theories of communication and the nature of English language.
h) suggestions to make an oral lesson successful.
1.selection and gradation of items
2.chance to converse with close friends first
3. encouragement to speak
4. vocabulary extension
5.qualified and linguistically minded teacher
6.curriculum with scope for opral work works
8 individual attention
9.attentive listening and right speaking habits.

i)Speaking Activities for developing the Sub skills
3)Description /narration
4) Group Discussion
5)Pair work
6)Information gap filling tasks
7)Asking questions
8)running commentaries
9) Imagining
10) News reading
11) problem solving
The resourcefulness of the teacher is the main factor.
j)How to evaluate speaking skill?
Speaking is hardly evaluated due to :-
1.large classes
2.lack of facilities
3.time consuming
4.faulty exam system
5.little scope for interview and viva-voce
1 UGC Curriculum Development Centre (1989)
2.Bachman and Palmer Model (1996)
3.Alderson Thompson and Wyatt
k)Assessing performance
-Continuous comprehensive evaluation
-Evaluation every sub skills
-provision for feedback.

2. Sivarajan K., Ramakrishnan TV and Mridula K. (2007), English Language Education, Calicut University , (Pg. 63-78)


a)Reading  Process
reading is the reception of meaning from the written language. It is the ability to interpret linguistic sounds in their graphic and symbolic representation.
An active receptive skill.  Constitutes -Interpreting, Evaluating and constructing meaning.
Comprehension takes place in three levels –
Literal meaning, interpretation   of meaning and evaluation of meaning.
Edgar Dale –reading on the lines, reading between the lines, reading beyond the lines respectively.
Reading for- knowledge, pleasure and culture.
b) Sub-skills
Factors influencing reading readiness
1. Physical or physiological. or environmental.
3.emotional or motivational  
4.mental or intellectual.
c) Mechanics of Reading skill.
-Eye movements in jerks – training to enlarge eye span.
Various methods of teaching reading
  1. Analytical method
a)Alphabetic method -pays attention to individual letter in  alphabetic method. Traditional , systematic and easy. Speed will not be developed.
b)Phonic method -pays attention to individual  sounds in  phonic method. Words is read in its constituent phonemes.-familiar with sounds in early stages itself - difficult in the beginning. Linguists prefer this method.
  1. Synthetic method
The three different perspectives
a)      The word method / look and say method
Word is introduced and meaning bond is created. –interesting. –speedy progress and psychological. Not easy to teach all words.
b)      The phrasal method/sentence method
Reading by meaningful phrases. Sentence is the unit of reading.-meaningful learning. Problematic for beginners. Practical only in advanced stages. Suitable for teaching in the situational approach.
c)      Paragraph method/story method
Paragraph is the unit for reading. –interesting. –lack of books. Simple stories on BB or charts used.

A combination of the methods according to the level and purpose should be employed.
d)     Reading Problems and Defects
A)Faulty Reading Habits
1. finger pointing  reduces speed of reading.
2. Spreading the spit
3.Regression –eye moving backward
4.Vocalization –tendency to read word by word and not in sense groups
5. Sub vocalization- whispering on the passage in silent reading.
6. absent mindedness.
B) Defective Reading
Happens from two sources
1.Opthalmic (defective eye sight)
2. Neurological –stammering, alexia
e)Types of Reading 
1.loud reading
2.Silent reading
3.Intensive reading
4.Extensive reading
f) Phases of Reading  Activities
1.Understanding sound system
2.Understanding the relationship between sentence and clause
3.recognizing the effects of style.
4. recognizing organization of a text
5.Making inferences
6.Extensive reading
7.Skimming for gist.
8.Scanning for specific information
9.Reading for details.
g) Techniques and Mechanical devices for improving speed and comprehension
h)Teaching Elementary Reading
i)Teaching Advanced Reading Skills
2.structural clues
3.morphological information
 4.inference from context.
j) Types of reading materials to develop reading skills
2. background
3.Subject matter
k) Setting up a class library
-keep a class library consists of variety of interesting  resources.
-be enthusiastic and stimulate the learners.
-give a gist and interesting features of the publications.
-manuscript magazine
-A glossary of unfamiliar words to be attached with the books.
- materials
l) Evaluating reading skill

1.      Sivarajan K., Ramakrishnan TV and Mridula K. (2007), English Language Education, Calicut University , (pg.79-95).



a)Writing Process

Writing skill in writing begins with simply copying and ranges to free self expression.
Writing is not restricted to writing on paper only as in the past. Its scope has widened due to the advent of modern information and communication technology.
b)Different forms of writing
Writing has two main aspects, the mechanics of writing and the purpose and organization of writing.
c)Sub skills of writing
(i) Mechanics of handwriting, spelling and punctuation.
(ii) Word choice i.e. vocabulary, idiom, phrase, tone etc.
(iii) Organization i.e. ideas, paragraphs, topics cohesion and unity.
(iv) Syntax i.e. structure and boundaries of sentence, choice of stylistics etc.
(v) Grammar i.e. verb agreement, articles, pronouns etc.
(vi) Content i.e. relevance, clarity, originality, logic, sequence etc.
(vii) Purpose i.e. the relevance and justification for writing.

B)Developing Writing Skills

d) One technique each to develop each sub-skills
(i) Spelling : Correlate spelling and reading when news words are introduced. -Spelling book of confusing words, use mnemonics etc.
(ii) Handwriting : copy writing from other books, blackboard etc. Competition on handwriting ,
(iii) Punctuation : They act as sign posts for easy, clear understanding of written material.
(iv) Brainstorming with words, phrases, notes, connected ideas etc.
(v) Vocabulary : Selecting vocabulary to convey attitude and implied meaning.
(vi) Language use : Ability to write correct and appropriate sentences.
(vii) Treatment of content : Ability to think creatively and develop thoughts, excluding all irrelevant information.
(viii) Stylistic skills : Ability to manipulate sentences and paragraphs and use language effectively.
(ix) Judgment skills : Ability to write in an appropriate manner for a particular purpose with a particular audience in mind.
e) Mechanics of writing
While teaching a language, we develop number of skills in our students. Writing is one those communication skills. Moreover, writing makes the record permanent.
In teaching the mechanics of writing of English alphabet, the teacher has the advantage that his students have learnt it in the process of acquiring their mother tongue, though in a different way. The students now know how to hold the writing materials, at what suitable distance and how the physical posture should be etc.
A few decades ago 4 types of English alphabet were taught to students: the civil round hand and cursive writing, the block capital letters and small letters (for print). But now, for handwriting, only block capital letters and cursive letters (Italic) are being taught and practiced, because that is enough.
Italic writing is accepted and instructed in our schools for children’s hand writing with block capitals wherever necessary. One important thing is in writing the letters should be either vertical or slanting towards the right a little, not slanting to the left. The body of the letters should have uniform size.
The few other features to be made part of our habit of writing are: letters in words should be distinctive, proper spacing should be given between words (one space), between the ending of a sentence and the beginning of the next (two spaces). Committing mistakes in spelling will be constructed badly by the readers. Italic writing as described above can be made perfect by practice for a few days and speed can be increased.
If practiced, we can make our handwriting very legible, beautiful and attractive.
f)Handwriting Skills
Good handwriting is an asset with the learner. good handwriting means legible writing which does not strain the mind of the reader. The reader can read it easily, nicely and fluently. The teacher must have attractive handwriting. Simultaneously, the speed of writing should be maintained.
g) Characteristics of Good Handwriting
Legible and clean writing will promote fluent, rapid reading. If the answer papers are written in good handwriting, the examiner will be motivated to go through it. Following are the characteristics of good handwriting.
(a) Distinctiveness: Every letter of a word is distinct. It is clearly visible. It can be recognized easily by the learner.
(b) Proper spacing: There is proper space between the different words of a sentence. It should be maintained throughout the writing.
(c) Size of the letter: The size of the letters is according to the age group of the learner. The same proportion is kept in the whole writing.
(d) Simplicity: The different letters of a word are written in a simple way.
(e) Straight lines: Good handwriting runs in straight lines/.
(f) Principle of four lined note book: That gives uniformity to the writing.
(g) Position of letters: The letters may be in erect position and also be in a forward slant positions.
(h) Good punctuation Marks: The punctuation should be correct
h)Techniques to develop good handwriting
Research studies proved that handwriting can be improved in many ways.
1. Teacher must give continuous guidance during the early stages of writing and his own writing must be a model.
2. Regular writing exercises should be given in lower classes copy writing / transcription.
3. Italic writing should be practiced.
4. Frequent competitions in handwriting will proved encouragement.
5. Posture, holding of the writing material e.g. the black board are important factors to be considered.
6. At early stages, the students should be encouraged to make use of four –line note books.
7. Good handwriting should be displayed in the classroom to motivate the students.
i)Paper format
· Full size paper
· Margin
· Skip a line between title and first line.
· Distinct letters
· No decorative loops.
· Correct punctuation marks.
· Breaking words only between syllabus
· Attractive
· Neat, easy to read
j)Capital letters and Punctuation Marks
Use capital letters whenever is necessary.
Use Numbers, Abbreviations, Punctuations, Apostrophe, Quotation Marks, Comma, Colon, Semi –Colon, Dash, Hyphen and parenthesis to set off extra or incidental information from the rest of a sentence.
Thus writing is a complex act which has to be analyzed. One part of it is dependent on motor mechanisms, and the other represents real work of the intellect.
k) Phases of writing Activities
1. Tracing the letters and copying continue for two three years. Improving handwriting will be advisable.
2.In the High school stage fairly adequate skill in writing well organized paragraphs and letters with cohesion, sequence and in a logical way using proper connectors. Spelling games and word building games can be provided.
l)Creative writing (Composition )
All types of writing gradually leads one to creative types of writing. Guided composition enables a person to write tree composition and that paves way to creative writing. A person is enabled to write reviews, short stories, dialogues etc. and the same may be used in the college magazine or may be published somewhere in the standard magazine.
Developing a composition should involve the following steps:1. Pre composition, 2.Oral composition, 3.Writing composition , and 4. Correction work.
By the time pupils begin to write confidently they should be encouraged to write imaginatively according to their choices.
m)Objectives of Creative writing
The following may be regarded as the major purposes of Creative writing.
a. Instill Confidence
b. Give pleasure
c. Sense of achievement
d. Relieve psychic pressure
e. Writing for the public eye :
f. Good use of leisure time
n) Evaluating writing skill
Evaluated mainly at terminal or annual exams.
Evaluating writing skill is to be seen in two areas
The mechanics of writing
While evaluating the mechanics of writing , we need to see that the pupils should write with 1.legibility, 2.Simplicity, 3.Uniformity in size, 4.Distinctiveness, 5.Spacing, 6.Spelling, 7.Punctuation, and 8.Speed.
All these features can be evaluated through different strategies like copy writing and dictation
The organization and presentation of ideas.
To test cognitive skills , test like rearrange in to a logical sequence, outline expansion, supplying the omitted connectives and the similar teacher made creative devices can be used.
o)Correction Rules and correction signals
1. Correction Rules
-class correction and self correction to be encouraged.
-individual correction as far as possible.
-common mistakes correction orally and using the B.B.
2.correction signals
-In professional journalism sixty signals are used for proof reading. In class room correction , a minimum number is required.
Teacher should make children familiar with the signals she is going to use, in advance. A feasible list of signals is given in (pg.- 113).
3. Sivarajan K., Ramakrishnan TV and Mridula K. (2007), English Language Education, Calicut University , (pg.96-113).

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